What is Dyslexia? — Scope | Disability forum
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What is Dyslexia?

dolfrog Member Posts: 441 Pioneering
edited October 2021 in Autism and neurodiversity
Dyslexia is a man made problem concerning decoding and recoding the visual notation of speech, or the graphic symbols society chooses to represent the sounds of speech.

Dyslexia is language dependent.

There are two types of dyslexia. Acquired Dyslexia, also known as Alexia, is caused by brain injury, stroke, atrophy, etc which is concerned with those loosing or have lost the previously acquired skills to decode and recode the visual notation of speech. 
And Developmental Dyslexia which has a genetic causes. There are three cognitive subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia - Auditory, Visual and Attentional. Which means that an Auditory Processing Disorder, a Visual Processing Disorder, an Attention Deficit / Disorder, or any combination of these issues can cause the Dyslexic Symptom
So those who are classified as being dyslexic need to identify the underlying cognitive / clinical / medical cause of their dyslexic symptom, so that they can fully understand the nature of their own specific disability, and the limitations it or they impose. And more importantly identify the alternative compensating skills and abilities that they will be best able to access to work around their personal limitations.
This will also prevent others who do not have one of these disabilities from falsely claiming to be dyslexic.

Some Research papers:
A case study of an English-Japanese Bilingual with monolingual dyslexia
Cognitive subtypes of dyslexia.
Cognitive subtypes of dyslexia are characterized by distinct patterns of grey matter volume 
A multidisciplinary approach to understanding developmental dyslexia within working-memory architecture: genotypes, phenotypes, brain, and instruction.
A structural–functional basis for dyslexia in the cortex of Chinese readers
The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia
Theories of developmental dyslexia: insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults
Neural Noise Hypothesis of Developmental Dyslexia 
Unstable Representation of Sound: A Biological Marker of Dyslexia 
For Reading Development, Auditory Processing Is Fundamental
Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia 
Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5538955/ 

You could have a look at more research papers in my "Some PubMed Dyslexia Research Paper Collections" 

Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia
and .

Theme issue 'Placebo effects in medicine: mechanisms and clinical implications' compiled and edited by Karin Meissner, Niko Kohls and Luana Colloca 


  • NotSoSerious
    NotSoSerious Member Posts: 17 Connected
    All I understand about my dyslexcia is that I can't enjoy a novel, and just reading one is hard. I can't read, and form the picture at the same time. I don't know how identifying the underlying problems would help.
    "It is possible to commit no errors and still lose. That is not a weakness. That is life."
  • dolfrog
    dolfrog Member Posts: 441 Pioneering
    edited January 2020
    All I understand about my dyslexcia is that I can't enjoy a novel, and just reading one is hard. I can't read, and form the picture at the same time. I don't know how identifying the underlying problems would help.
    There are three possible underlying causes of the dyslexia symptom, an auditory processing disorder, a visual processing disorder an attention disorder, or any combination of these disabilities.
    Each of these disabilities shares the dyslexia symptom due to different underlying causes, and these disabilities have a much wider range of symptoms other than dyslexia, which may be causing other problems on a life long basis.

    I have auditory processing disorder as the underlying cause of my dyslexia symptom, which is about my brain not being able to effectively process the sounds my ears hear, which includes the speech of others. (dyslexia is about having problems decoding and recoding the visual notation of speech) I have problems processing the gaps between sounds which can include the gaps between words in rapid speech, or when others talk too fast to process what they are saying as to me it is one continuous noise, no gaps between the words. I have a poor auditory memory, and i am not able to use phonics or sound out new words from text.

    On a social basis i can only cope with small groups of only 2 or 3 people, more than that and I am not able to process what the others are saying. I am not able to effectively use a telephone as i am not able to use my visual coping strategies such as lip reading and reading body language to help me fill in the auditory processing gaps when listening to what the other person may be saying or if they are talking too fast, i can not understand a word they are saying.

    So it really does depend on the underlying cause of your dyslexia symptom and the severity of the problems you may be experiencing. 
    Basically all who are identified as being dyslexia should be referred to an audiologist (who is trained and qualified to assess and diagnose the 4 types of APD), an optometrist for visual processing problems, and a psychiatrist to assess any attention disorder issues. Unfortunately those who currently identify those who have dyslexia, educational psychologists are not trained or qualified to assess and diagnose any of the underlying cognitive causes of the dyslexia symptom and fail to refer those they identify as being dyslexic to be assess and diagnosed for the possible underlying cause of the dyslexia symptom and help them with the full range of their disability issues. Pure corruption. 


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